aviculture au maroc


study of poultry projects









Animal and human health: today, more than ever, a common concern


The demonstration is no longer to be done. There are a considerable number of scientific articles on the intensive use of antibiotics “in prevention” in the poultry farming which indicate this practice like one of the principal causes of the antimicrobial resistance in the whole world. This overconsumption of drugs by animals, harmful to adults worldwide, promotes resistance to bacteria, viruses, fungi ... a prelude to a health disaster if it is not quickly ended.

Animal and consumer health are unquestionably linked. Whence the question: what strategy should we adopt now, to clean up our diet, while participating in the fight against Covid-19?

A September 2019 article in the journal Science science.sciencemag.org/content/365/6459/eaaw1944 indicates that since the 2000s, meat production has stabilized in high-income countries but has increased by 68 %, 64% and 40% in Asia, Africa and South America. This transition to a more protein diet in these low- and middle-income countries has been favoured by the globalization of intensive farming systems, in which antibiotics are administered daily to develop productivity. A significant figure: 73% of the antibiotics used worldwide are intended for animal husbandry.
Antibiotic-resistant superbugs' nests have been observed everywhere on these antibiotic-dependent farms, and also pose a threat to the development of the meat industry and, therefore, to the survival of the farmers themselves.
This phenomenon is global, but the areas most affected are those of low- and middle-income countries, of which Morocco is a part, as well as southern Brazil, India, Kenya, the Vietnam delta, Egypt.
The sectors of activity most affected are farms where animals are concentrated in small spaces: broilers, laying hens, pigs and rabbits. Without forgetting the industrial shrimp farming, the most consumed crustacean in the world. The demand is so great that this industry has become the one that consumes the most antibiotics and is developing a form of antibiotic resistance to pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella.


The special case of Morocco


No precise figure allows us to assess exactly the consumption of antibiotics in the livestock sector. However, an article published in Agrimaroc www.agrimaroc.ma/elevage-resistance-antibiotiques/ allows us to get an idea by communicating the turnover of veterinary antibiotics. In the space of 10 years, it went from 39.4 million dirhams in 1998 to 91.6 million dirhams in 2017, an increase of 132%. Not to mention the informal sector and smuggling (antibiotics from India, sold at half price for example).

The Covid-19 crisis reminds us of the H1N1 crisis (2009/20 10) and forces us to think about the proper use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, in order to preserve the effectiveness of antimicrobials essential to human medicine. It encourages the transition to sustainable practices in agro ecology.

How to replace antibiotics in farms?

In France, within the framework of the international recommendations of the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO); the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, in partnership with the Ministry of Health, has implemented Ecoantibio plans. They are also part of the agro ecological project whose challenges are the sustainable change in antibiotic prescription practices, the improvement of animal living conditions and access to effective and economical health products, other than antibiotics.
It is interesting to take note of the effort of the French State which, through these plans, enabled us, actor, breeder or consumer, to become aware of the massive use of antibiotics.
The slogans were as follows
: - "Antibiotics are not automatic" for pet owners;
- "Fed, housed, vaccinated" intended for breeders. The first Ecoantibio plan (2012-2017) set up: - Incentive and voluntary measures through major national communication campaigns and numerous events (regional symposia, international conferences, press articles, etc.), initial and continuous training for veterinarians and breeders and the funding of numerous applied research studies;
- Legislative and regulatory measures such as the prohibition of discounts, rebates, rebates for the sale of antibiotics, supervision of the prescription and delivery of critically important antibiotics, the publication of a guide to good antibiotic use practices in veterinary medicine and taking this challenge into account in the veterinary code of ethics.

The Ecoantibio 2 plan (2017-2021) is structured around 4 axes (agriculture.gouv.fr/le-plan-ecoantibio-2-2017-2021):
- Develop measures to prevent infectious diseases and facilitate the use of alternative treatments;
- Communicate and train on the challenges of fighting antimicrobial resistance, on the reasoned prescription of antibiotics and on other means of controlling infectious diseases;
- Provide shared tools: tools for assessing and monitoring the use of antibiotics and tools for their responsible prescription and administration;
- Share efforts by ensuring the proper application of the rules of good use at the national level and encourage their adoption at the European and international levels.
Today, one of the main objectives of the Ecoantibio 2 plan is to acquire references on alternative treatments to limit the prescription of antibiotics.
The use of essential oils in animal feed now takes on its full meaning.


Essential oils: the solution to stop the use of antibiotics


Essential oils have been known for a long time for their antimicrobial action. They also make it possible to fight effectively against E. coli, staphylococci and even salmonella. They act as a growth factor in the same way as antibiotics thanks to their antioxidant actions and strengthen the immune system.
Essential oils have other benefits. They are considered a food additive because they increase palatability, contribute naturally to digestive work and act as a stimulant.
Numerous studies and tests have been carried out worldwide in numerous fields: equines, racing camels, dairy cows, aquaculture, poultry farming, beekeeping, etc.
In Morocco, His Majesty King Mohamed VI launched in February 2020 the Generation Green 2020-2030 plan which succeeded the Green Morocco Plan, implemented by the sovereign in April 2008. The Minister of Agriculture, Maritime Fisheries , Rural Development and Water and Forests, Mr. Aziz Akhannouch carries the challenge of performing Moroccan agriculture.

The bet of this plan is to develop agriculture to make it a powerful economic engine while reconciling the well-being of workers and respect for the environment. It is therefore time to support farmers and breeders towards new farming practices, agro ecology and new farming techniques. It is all the more essential since the crisis engendered by Covid-19, with the immediate consequence of the collapse of agricultural markets, comes in a period of drought which gravely affects the south of the country and is further aggravated by the scarcity of resources. Hydraulic.
But beware, essential oils act in specific ways and do not necessarily combine. They should be used with caution as their combinations and dosages can strengthen or worsen their mutual effects.
In Morocco, I have conducted tests with bees and broiler chickens with professionals. The results are very promising. For bees in terms of increasing the activity of the hive and the amount of honey produced. For chickens in terms of mortality rate, health, increase in weight at the end of the cycle, quality of meat, compared to a group treated with antibiotics.



Study results on the use of essential oils on a broiler farm


Julia Tatin COJT Consulting