aviculture au maroc

 

study of poultry projects

feed mill

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

Poultry feed Manufacturing

 

INTRODUCTION

 

For industrial poultry farms, the distributed feed is a complete compound feed manufactured in factories specializing in poultry feed. In general, these feeds are based on grains (Corn, barley, Sorghum, Grains meal), oilseed meals (soybeans and sunflowers), fishmeal (sardines at 65% MAT), minerals and premixes. The majority of the ingredients (Corn, soybean, sorghum, minerals and vitamins, additives) are imported and the rest are produced in whole or in part at the country level. The animal feed industry, 90% oriented towards the poultry feed, is very competitive and essentially well equipped to produce quality feed.

 

The different ranges of food produced depend on the type of production:

 

-The broiler: Food start, growth and finish.

-Layer hens and breeders: feed for starters, breeding and laying .

-Turkey: starter, growth and finishing foods 1 and 2.

 

For the traditional poultry sector, compound feed is only very rarely distributed.

The animal is responsible for finding its food at the farm level and in the evening, it can receive supplementation based on household waste and cereal products (bran, screenings, etc.).

 

The production of compound feed for poultry is ensured by more than 40 factories. A significant number of laying and breeders farms have their own feed manufacturing units and process around 600,000 tonnes (on-farm production).

 

Total poultry feed production was 3.7 million tonnes in 2019, with a total production capacity estimated at around 5 million tonnes. This overcapacity in production maintains fierce competition for market share between factories, which is the source of a continuous quest to improve costs and quality.

 

 

Feed formulation

 

A- Feed balance

 

The raw materials used in poultry feed fall into two categories: the first belong to the "energy" group and include, in addition to garins, some roots and tubers, but also industrial by-products of flour milling (bran and low flour mainly for with regard to sub-Saharan Africa).

 

The second group of feed raw materials includes: oil cake and by-products from locally produced fishmeal and fish meal, plus vitamins, minerals and a set of additives.

Corn: it represents the garin of choice for feeding poultry. Its energy value is very high and its starch has a high digestibility.

 

B- Nutritional requirements and standards:

 

To feed properly poultry, "the formulator needs to know the type of production involved, the conditions under which the animals are raised, and above all the composition of the feed materials contained in the complete compound feed. The concept of nutritional needs follows naturally from that of animal needs.

 

The feed is a mixture of energy raw materials and nitrogen for the most part. There are added variable additives depending on the species. The formulator must respect a certain number of constraints to properly feed the poultry.

 

The first are nutritional constraints. We understand that any change in the energy content must automatically lead to a change in the composition of the other nutrients because indeed, if for a feed with 2900 kcal the animal consumes 120 g per day, it will consume lysine 1.0 8% of that amount.

 

Assuming that the same animal has a feed at 3100 kcal and that it still consumes 120 g of feed, the amount of lysine consumed is greater. In reality, the animals adjust their consumption more or less well, but the formulator must always adapt the other nutrients to their energy content of the feeds presented.

 

1- The standards in growth period from 1 to 28 days:

 

Energy (EM kcal/kg

2900

3000

3100

3200

Protein (%)

20-22

20-22

20-22

20-22

Amino acids(%)

 

Lysine

1.08

1.12

1.16

1.20

Méthionine

0.50

0.51

0.53

0.55

Méthionine+cystine

0.83

0.86

0.89

0.92

Minerals

 

Calcium

0.90

0.94

0.97

1.00

Total Phosphorus

0.65

0.66

0.68

0.70

Available Phosphore

0.40

0.42

0.44

0.44

Sodium chloride

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

 

2- Finish period of 29 at slaughter:

 

Energy (EM kcal/kg)

2900

3000

3100

3200

Protein (%)

18-20

18-20

18-20

18-20

Amino acids (%)

 

Lysine

0.91

0.94

0.97

1,00

Methionine

0.38

0.40

0.41

0.42

Methionine + cystine

0.72

0.74

0.77

0.79

Minerals

 

Calcium

0.80

0.84

0.87

0.90

Total Phosphorus

0.60

0.62

0.64

0.65

Available Phosphore

0.35

0.30

0.39

0.40

Sodium chloride

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

 

 

 

3- Standards for pullets:

 

Period

0-6 Semaines

7-20 Semaines

Energy (EM kcal/kg)

2800

2750

Protein

18

15

Amino acids (%)

 

Lysine

0.98

0.68

Methionine

0.42

0.30

Méthionine+cystine

0.72

0.54

Mineral

 

Calcium

0.90

0.90

Total Phosphorus

0.65

0.60

Available Phosphore

0.38

0.35

Sodium chloride

0.30

0.30

 

4- Standards for semi-heavy layers (red hens)

 

 

Energie (EM kcal/kg)

2700

2850

2900

Protein

14-15

15-16

16-17

Amino acids (%)

 

 

 

Lysine

0.78

0.82

0.87

Methionine

0.38

0.40

0.42

Methionine+cystine

0.67

0.71

0.74

Mineral

 

 

 

Calcium

4.00

4.20

4.40

Total Phosphorus

0.60

0.63

0.67

Available Phosphore

0.34

0.36

0.30

Sodium chloride

0.30

0.30

0.30

Linoleic acid

1.00

1.05

1.10

 

C- Value of feed:

 

Feeds can be classified according to their peculiarities, namely those that provide energy, sources of protein, calcium and phosphorus and finally, those that provide other minerals, trace-elements and vitamins.

 

1- Energy sources:

 

Grains are generally the source of energy for feed. Corn is more energetic than millet, sorghum or wheat.

 

Low rice and wheat flours (middlings) have good energy value.

 

The bran have an average value in energy but they are essential to regulate the digestive transit of poultry.

 

Vegetable oils and animal fats are a virtually pure source of energy and are used in high-energy diets.

 

2- Protein sources:

 

- The cakes (peanut, cotton, palm kernel, etc.) provide the majority of the proteins in the ration.

 

- Fishmeal is an excellent source of protein, rich in lysine and methionine.

 

- Synthetic lysine and methionine should generally be incorporated into the mixture to

satisfy the needs for these two essential amino acids, which are generally too little present in raw materials.

 

- The cakes (peanut, cotton, palm , etc.) provide the majority of the proteins in the ration.

 

- Fishmeal is an excellent source of protein, rich in lysine and methionine.

 

- Synthetic lysine and methionine must generally be incorporated into the mixture to meet the needs for these two essential amino acids, which are generally too little present in raw materials.

 

3- Sources of calcium and phosphorus:

 

- Chalk (calcium carbonate), phosphors, crushed shells, oyster shells, bone powder are generally used.

- Commercial mineral concentrates also provide these elements in variable quantities depending on the products marketed

 

4- Contribution of other minerals, trace elements and vitamins

 

Commercial mineral-vitamin concentrates (CMV) are the main source of these various elements and are generally incorporated in doses varying between 0.5 and 5% of the ration.

 

D- Formulation:

 

The formulation of feeds consists of combining the different raw materials available to obtain a mixture ensuring the satisfaction of animal needs while guaranteeing the lowest price per kg of compound feed.

 

General rules to be observed during formulation:

 

- It is advantageous to use a large number of raw materials (from 7 to 12) to properly balance a ration.

 

- It is necessary to approach as much as possible the recommended needs for each category of poultry and during the different periods of breeding, without wasting the products which cost meat.

 

- We will never replace one raw material with another without recalculating the composition of the feed.

 

- We will never make a vitamin mineral concentrate ourselves and we will respect the standards recommended for the use of commercial CMV.

 

- Synthetic lysine and methionine are often essential as are the sources of calcium and phosphorus.

 

- The use of vegetable oil or animal fat makes it possible to obtain a high energy level in rations.

 

- Bran (rice, wheat, etc.) must always be used (between 7 and 12% of the ration) for the regulation of digestive transit and to avoid diarrhea and constipation.

 

Limits of use of certain raw materials:

 

Due to the presence of anti-nutritional factors, to respect an optimal presentation of the feed, or because certain feeds give tastes to the flesh and eggs, it is necessary to respect a certain number of special rules for the incorporation of materials firsts:

 

-Grain: no usage limits except for red sorghum which contains tannins (limit of 30 to 35% in rations, depending on the tannin content);

 

-Peanut meal: do not exceed 25% of the mixture due to the presence of aflatoxin;

 

- Cotton meal: do not exceed 10% of the mixture due to the presence of gossypol;

 

- Palm meal: do not exceed 20% of the mixture (high fiber content);

 

- Fishmeal: do not exceed 5% of the mixture because it gives its taste to eggs and

chicken meat, especially if it is fatty;

 

- Rice flour: do not exceed 40% of the mixture to limit the depressive effect due to its use in rations;

 

- Vegetable oil and animal fats: do not exceed 5% of the mixture to avoid diarrhea.

 

E- Preparation:

 

Food preparation on the farm is carried out in several stages, namely:

 

-        Weighing of raw materials  : it must be precise;

 

-        Grinding  : small raw materials (particles from 0.1 to 1.5 mm) can be incorporated as such in the mixture (phosphorus, chalk, lysine, methionine, CMV, bran ...). The other elements of the ration (Grains, meal ...) must be crushed before being mixed to obtain big particles of 0.5 to 1.5 mm.

 

-        Pre-mixing  : it consists of mixing all the raw materials which must be incorporated in small quantities with a part of the crushed grains, so as to better distribute them in the final mixture. The premix can be carried out simply in basins or in an off-center barrel set in motion with the hand of a crank (example: chalk, phosphorus, lysine, methionine, CMV + part of corn);

 

-        Mixing  : the premix is ​​gradually incorporated into the rest of the raw materials using a mixer (subhorizontal, vertical mixer, off-axis barrel, etc.) or with a shovel on a concrete surface;

 

-        Incorporation of oil  : it is carried out last, gradually and after a certain time of mixing to avoid the formation of small pellets.

 

Some practical advice:

 

-        Always use good quality raw materials (avoid mold, filth, foreign bodies, etc.)

-        Weigh the raw materials correctly.

-        Check if there are no losses in terms of grinding, otherwise weigh the raw materials after grinding.

-        Avoid losses in premixes.

-        Gradually incorporate the premix into the mixture.

-        Incorporate the fat as a last step, gradually and after mixing the rest for at least 10 minutes.

-        Respect the mixing times recommended by the manufacturers of mixers (from 20 to 30 min.)

-        Check the proper distribution of the ingredients after mixing.

-        Always use qualified and experienced labor for feed preparation.

-        During manufacturing, avoid the spread of diseases from one building to another (large farms) through reused bags: marking and use of bags per building.

-        For the same reason, use new bags for feed and replace them regularly.

 

  Source: Semi-industrial poultry farming in a subtropical climate (1996 Gembloux agricultural presses)

 

 

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